THE CARE OF BABY CHICKS, TURKEYS, GUINEAS & PHEASANTS
FEED: Use a 20% chick starter for the first 8 weeks. On the first day cover the litter with newspaper and spread some feed on the papers and have your feeders full also. This will allow the new birds to find the feed. Use a 2 foot feeder for each 25 chicks. After the first day remove the papers from the starting area.
CHICKEN TYPE (AGE) FEED PROTEIN
Layer Chicks (0 to 4 weeks) Chick Starter 20%
Laying Hens (4 weeks until laying begins) Grower 17%
Laying Hens (through laying years) Layer Feed (Crumble or Pellet) 17%
Broiler/Meat Birds (0 to 4 weeks) Chick Starter 20%
Broiler/Meat Birds (4 weeks to butchering) Grower 17%
Turkeys, Guineas, Pheasants, Etc (0 to 4 weeks) Gamebird Starter 28%
Turkeys, Guineas, Pheasants, Etc (4 weeks +) Grower 24%
WATER: Have a 1 gallon chick waterer for each 50 birds. DIP THE BEAK OF THE CHICK IN THE WATER BEFORE YOU TURN IT LOOSE. For the first 2 days add 3 tablespoons of table sugar to each quart of water for extra energy. Your birds will be thirsty when you get them. A taste of water right away helps them to find more water soon. Most baby bird loss is caused because the bird doesn't start to eat or drink. Never let your birds run out of water.
HEAT: The temperature where the birds are should be 90 to 95 degrees for the first week. Reduce the temperature 5 degrees per week until you get to 70 degrees. Then they shouldn't need any more heat. A good source of heat is a 250 watt bulb. (Red bulbs are better than white. They cause less picking.) Hang it 18 inches from the floor. The temperature directly under the bulb will be higher than 90 degrees but the birds will adjust themselves to the area they like. If it’s too warm, raise the light higher. The temperature may need to be slightly higher for Bantams and other small-bodied birds. Use 1 bulb for each 50 chicks in cold weather. Use 1 bulb for each 100 chicks in warm weather.
LIGHT: If you use a heat bulb, this will also serve as the light you need. Otherwise, be sure to give your birds light. Use a 75 watt bulb on dark days. Have a small light for night - 15 watts or similar - to keep them from piling.
SPACE: Try to provide 1/2 square foot per bird at the start. For starting 50 chicks use a draft shield and make a circle about 5 to 6 feet across. For 100 birds, make the circle 7 to 8 feet across.
OTHER IMPORTANT MATTERS
DRAFT SHIELD: Cardboard put in a circle about 12 inches high around the birds helps cut down drafts on the floor. Be sure the circle is large enough to allow the birds to get away from the heat if they want to.
LITTER: Wood shavings make good litter. Do not use cedar chips, sawdust (It is too small and the birds may eat it instead of their food), or treated wood chips. Sand, straw, or dirt will also work but are not as good as the others. Put the litter all over the floor at least 1 inch thick. Keep it covered for the first day with newspapers to keep the chicks from eating the litter instead of the feed. To avoid possible leg problems, remove the papers after the first day for heavy breeds and meat birds and after the third day for lighter breeds.
GRIT: Starting the 3rd day sprinkle #1 Fine Grit on the feed daily as if you were salting your food. Avoid putting too much at any one time as the bird may fill up on it instead of the feed.
PICKING: Baby birds will often pick each other if they are too hot, too crowded, or without fresh air. Occasionally bright light also causes them to pick. An ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure when it comes to picking. Sometimes, however, they pick for no apparent reason. To stop it, try putting in fresh green grass clippings several times a day and darken the room. As a last resort, debeaking might have to be done. Try cutting off about one-third of the top bill. Do not cut the lower bill, just the top one. To treat birds that have been picked, smear pine tar or Blukote on the injured area.
SPECIAL SITUATIONS AFTER THE CHICKS ARRIVE
IF THE BIRDS HAD A HARD TRIP: Instead of using the standard feed and water suggestions listed, try this: Put 6 more tablespoons of sugar in each gallon of water. Then mix some of this extra sweet water with some of your feed to make a soupy mix. Give your birds this special feed and water mix for 3 to 4 days to get them over the effects of shipping.
REAR END "PASTING UP": Sometimes the stress of shipping causes the manure to stick to the back of the bird. It is important to remove this daily. Pull off gently or, better yet, wash off with a cloth and warm water. It will disappear in a few days as the bird starts to grow.
CORNISH ROCKS: It is recommended that these chicks are allowed to free feed for the first 2 weeks. After their 2nd week do not let these birds eat all they want. Fill the feeders each day and let the feed run out in the late afternoon. Research has shown these birds will grow just a fraction slower but have considerably less leg and heart problems by not feeding them continuously.
AFTER FOUR WEEKS
1. Increase floor area to 3/4 square feet per bird.
2. Increase feeders to provide 2-1/2" to 3" of space per bird.
3. Increase waterers to one 5-gallon fount per 100 birds.
4. Make sure grit hopper or dish is filled with proper sized grit separate from their food.
5. Install roosts at back of brooder area. Allow four inches per bird with roost poles six inches apart.
6. Open windows in day-time. Leave only partly open at night.
7. Prevent water puddles around founts. Place founts on low wire platforms or cinder blocks
8. Birds can range outside on warm, sunny days, but only if clean range is available.
CARE OF DUCKS & GEESE
FEED: Do NOT feed them any type of medicated feed! It will kill them. Vitamins are ok. Chick starter can be fed up to four weeks of age. Grower pellets are preferred from that point on. Whole and cracked grains can be used to supplement the pellets at maturity. Green grass and vegetable trimmings can be given at any time.
WATER: Ducklings should have access to drinking water at all times but not enough for them to walk or swim in. Since they have been hatched in an incubator, they do not have their mother's protective oil on their down, therefore they can be easily chilled if allowed to be in water. Access to swimming water can be given at full feathering (approximately two months of age.)
HEAT: The first week they need access to areas heated to 90 degrees F. This can be reduced 5 degrees F per week. For small numbers, a heat lamp suspended 1-1/2' above the bedding is fine. Heating may take daily adjustments. If they are huddled or climbing on one another, increase the temperature. If they move away from their heat source, reduce the temperature. Protect them from all drafts.
HEALTH: Keep the bedding as dry as possible (wood shavings are the best). Do not use cedar chips, sawdust, or treated wood chips for bedding. Once your ducklings or goslings are one month old allow them room to exercise and play outdoors during the day if possible.
TYPE (AGE) FEED PROTEIN
Ducklings & Goslings (0 to 4 weeks) Chick Starter 20%
Ducks & Geese (4 weeks +) Short Pellets 18%